Oxidation of Manganese(II) during Chlorination: Role of Bromide
The oxidation of dissolved manganese(II) (Mn(II)) during chlorination is a relatively slow process which may lead to residual Mn(II) in treated drinking waters. Chemical Mn(II) oxidation is autocatalytic and consists of a homogeneous and a heterogeneous process; the oxidation of Mn(H) is mainly driven by the latter process. This study demonstrates that Mn(II) oxidation during chlorination is enhanced in bromide-containing waters by the formation of reactive bromine species (e.g., HOBr, BrCl, Br2O) from the oxidation of bromide by chlorine. During oxidation of Mn(II) by chlorine in bromide-containing waters, bromide is recycled and acts as a catalyst. For a chlorine dose of 1 mg/L and a bromide level as low as 10 mu g/L, the oxidation of Mn(II) by reactive bromine species becomes the main pathway. It was demonstrated that the kinetics of the reaction are dominated by the adsorbed Mn(OH)(2) species for both chlorine and bromine at circumneutral pH. Reactive bromine species such as Br2O and BrCl significantly influence the rate of manganese oxidation and may even outweigh the reactivity of HOBr. Reaction orders in [HOBr](tot) were found to be 1.33 (+/- 0.15) at pH 7.8 and increased to 1.97 (+/- 0.17) at pH 8.2 consistent with an important contribution of Br2O which is second order in [HOBr](tot). These findings highlight the need to take bromide, and the subsequent reactive bromine species formed upon chlorination, into account to assess Mn(II) removal during water treatment with chlorine.