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A new finite element heterogeneous multiscale method (FE-HMM) is proposed for the numerical solution of the wave equation over long times in a rapidly varying medium. Our new FE-HMM-L method captures not only the short-time behavior of the wave field, well described by classical homogenization theory, but also more subtle long-time dispersive effects, both at a computational cost independent of the microscale. Optimal error estimates in the energy norm and the L-2-norm are proved over finite time intervals, which imply convergence to the solution from classical homogenization theory when both the macro-and the microscale are refined simultaneously. Numerical experiments illustrate the usefulness of the FE-HMM-L method and corroborate the theory.