A Review of Dynamic Experimental Techniques and Mechanical Behaviour of Rock Materials
The purpose of this review is to discuss the development and the state of the art in dynamic testing techniques and dynamic mechanical behaviour of rock materials. The review begins by briefly introducing the history of rock dynamics and explaining the significance of studying these issues. Loading techniques commonly used for both intermediate and high strain rate tests and measurement techniques for dynamic stress and deformation are critically assessed in Sects. 2 and 3. In Sect. 4, methods of dynamic testing and estimation to obtain stress–strain curves at high strain rate are summarized, followed by an in-depth description of various dynamic mechanical properties (e.g. uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, shear strength and fracture toughness) and corresponding fracture behaviour. Some influencing rock structural features (i.e. microstructure, size and shape) and testing conditions (i.e. confining pressure, temperature and water saturation) are considered, ending with some popular semi-empirical rate-dependent equations for the enhancement of dynamic mechanical properties. Section 5 discusses physical mechanisms of strain rate effects. Section 6 describes phenomenological and mechanically based rate-dependent constitutive models established from the knowledge of the stress–strain behaviour and physical mechanisms. Section 7 presents dynamic fracture criteria for quasi-brittle materials. Finally, a brief summary and some aspects of prospective research are presented.