Integration of Intra Chip Stack Fluidic Cooling using Thin-Layer Solder Bonding
Three-dimensional (3D) stacking of integrated circuit (IC) dies by vertical integration increases system density and package functionality. The vertical integration of IC dies by area-array Through-Silicon-Vias (TSVs) reduces the length of global interconnects and accordingly the signal delay time. On the other hand, the ongoing miniaturization trend of ICs results in constantly increasing chip-level power densities. Thus, the development of new chip cooling concepts is of utmost importance. Therefore, scalable cooling solutions for chip stacks, such as interlayer cooling, need to be investigated. This paper presents a new concept for the integration of intra chip stack fluidic cooling, namely die-embedded microchannels for single- and twophase thermal management, using a patterned thin-layer eutectic solder bonding technique for the stack assembly. Results showed the successful fabrication of 5-layer chip stacks with embedded microchannels and high aspect ratio TSVs. Optical inspections demonstrated the proper bond line formation and direct current (DC) daisy-chain electrical tests indicated the successful combination of TSVs with thin-layer solder interconnects. Mechanical shear tests on die-on-die bonded samples showed the strength of the patterned thin-layer solder bond (16MPa). An added solder ring-pad component to seal the electrically active pad from any conductive liquid coolant was also investigated and reflow tests on such geometries showed the appearance of a balling effect along the solder ring line. This balling was found to be mitigated when the ring aspect ratio (deposited solder height to ring width ratio) was kept below the experimentally observed critical value of 0.65.