Evidence for Two Different Regulatory Mechanisms Linking Replication and Segregation of Vibrio cholerae Chromosome II
Understanding the mechanisms that coordinate replication initiation with subsequent segregation of chromosomes is an important biological problem. Here we report two replication-control mechanisms mediated by a chromosome segregation protein, ParB2, encoded by chromosome II of the model multichromosome bacterium, Vibrio cholerae. We find by the ChIPchip assay that ParB2, a centromere binding protein, spreads beyond the centromere and covers a replication inhibitory site (a 39-mer). Unexpectedly, without nucleation at the centromere, ParB2 could also bind directly to a related 39-mer. The 39- mers are the strongest inhibitors of chromosome II replication and they mediate inhibition by binding the replication initiator protein. ParB2 thus appears to promote replication by out-competing initiator binding to the 39-mers using two mechanisms: spreading into one and direct binding to the other. We suggest that both these are novel mechanisms to coordinate replication initiation with segregation of chromosomes.