Bubble Plume Modeling For Lake Restoration
A steady bubble plume model is developed to describe a weak air (or oxygen) bubble injection system used for the restoration of deep stratified lakes. Since the model is designed for two modes of operation, i.e., oxygenation and artificial mixing, gas exchange between water and bubbles has to be included. The integral model is based on the entrainment hypothesis and a variable buoyancy flux determined by the local plume properties and the ambient water column. Fluxes of eight properties are described by nonlinear differential equations which can be numerically integrated. In addition, five equations of state are used. The model leaves open two initial conditions, plume radius and plume velocity. Model calculations with real lake water profiles demonstrate the range of applicability for both modes of operation. The model agrees reasonably well with field data and with laboratory experiments conducted by various investigators.