Calcite dissolution in two deep eutrophic lakes
The calcium cycle, in particular carbonate dissolution, was analyzed in two deep eutrophic lakes, Lago di Lugano (288 m maximum depth) and Sempachersee (87 m) located in Switzerland. A box model approach was used to calculate calcite dissolution in the water column and at the sediment-water interface based on various lake monitoring data such as sediment traps, sediment cores, water and pore-water analysis. A model for stationary conditions allowing the calculation of calcite dissolution in the water column for a given particle size distribution was developed. The relative values of the simulated Aux were consistent with sediment trap observations. The best fit of the dissolution rate constant of sinking calcite in Lago di Lugano was on the same order of magnitude (3 . 10(-10) kg(1/3) s(-1)) as published laboratory Values for this surface controlled process. Both lakes show a similar specific calcite precipitation rate of 170 g Ca m(-2) a(-1). The diffusive flux across the sediment-water interface amounts to about 15 and 10% of total calcite precipitation in Sempachersee and Lago di Lugano, respectively. However, 61% of the precipitated calcite is dissolved in the water column of Lago di Lugano compared to only 13% in Sempachersee. These results point towards the importance of grain size distributions and settling times in stratified deep waters as the two most important factors determining calcite retention in sediments of hard water lakes. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd.