Temperature Dependence of Transport Properties of Spiro-MeOTAD as a Hole Transport Material in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
The internal transport and recombination parameters of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs) using the amorphous organic semiconductor 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobtfluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as a hole transport material (HTM) are investigated using electrical impedance spectroscopy. Devices were fabricated using flat and nanostructured TiO2 and compared to systems using nanostructured ZrO2 to differentiate between the transport processes within the different components of the ssDSC. The effect of chemically p-doping the HIM on its transport was investigated, and its temperature dependence was examined and analyzed using the Arrhenius equation. Using this approach the activation energy of the hole hopping transport within the undoped spiro-MeOTAD film was determined to be 0.34 +/- 0.02 and 0.40 +/- 0.02 eV for the mesoporous TiO2 and ZrO2 systems, respectively.