Synthesis of bone-like structured foams
Here we present a processing route to produce multi-structured ceramic foams based on the combination of particle-stabilized foams with polymeric sponges to produce positive and negative templating structures. Polyester sponges are infiltrated with freshly produced calcium aluminate–alumina foams and upon sintering either positive templating structures are produced when wetting the sponges, or negative templating foams with a percolating pore network are obtained when completely filling the sponges. Additionally, by combining different layers of these particle-stabilized foam infiltrated sponges, various different structures can be produced, including sandwich structures, pore size gradients, and ceramic bone-like structures applying to different types of bone. The particle-stabilized foams used were in situ self-hardening calcium aluminate cement enriched alumina foams to obtain crack-free samples with pore interconnections and tailorable pore sizes.