Polymer microchip impedance spectroscopy through two parallel planar embedded microelectrodes: Understanding the impedance contribution of the surrounding polymer on the measurement accuracy
The present work describes a new methodology for contact free impedance of a solution in a polymer microchip taking into account the role played by the surrounding polymer on the impedance accuracy. Measurements were carried out using a photoablated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) microchannel above two embedded microband electrodes. The impedance diagrams exhibit a loop from high frequencies to medium frequencies (1 MHz to 100 Hz) and a capacitive behaviour at low frequencies (100 Hz to 1 Hz). The impedance diagrams were corrected by eliminating from the global microchip response the contribution of the impedance of the PET layer between the two microband electrodes. This operation enables a clear observation of the impedance in the microchannel solution, including the bulk solution contribution and the interfacial capacitance related to the surface roughness of the photoablated microchannel. Models for the impedance of solutions of varying conductivity showed that the capacitance of the polymer–solution interface can be modelled by a constant phase element (CPE) with an exponent of 0.5. The loop diameter was found to be proportional to the microchannel resistivity, allowing a cell constant around 4.93·105 (m−1) in contactless microelectrodes configuration.