In vivo studies of brain metabolism in animal models of Hepatic Encephalopathy using (1)H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common and severe neuropsychiatric complication present in acute and chronic liver disease. The unique advantages of high field (1)H MRS provide a method for assessing pathogenic mechanism, diagnosis and monitoring of HE, as well as for treatment assessment or recovery after liver transplantation, in a reproducible and reliable non-invasive way. The purpose of the present review is to present some new features of in vivo proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at high magnetic fields combined with some basic requirements for reliable metabolic profiling. Finally, in vivo applications of (1)H MRS in different HE animal models are presented.