Journal article

Analysis of sensitivity enhancement by dynamic nuclear polarization in solid-state NMR: a case study of functionalized mesoporous materials

We systematically studied the enhancement factor (per scan) and the sensitivity enhancement (per unit time) in C-13 and Si-29 cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) NMR boosted by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). Specifically, we separated contributions due to: (i) microwave irradiation, (ii) quenching by paramagnetic effects, (iii) the presence of frozen solvent, (iv) the temperature, as well as changes in (v) relaxation and (vi) cross-polarization behaviour. No line-broadening effects were observed for MSNs when lowering the temperature from 300 to 100 K. Notwithstanding a significant signal reduction due to quenching by TOTAPOL radicals, DNP-CP-MAS at 100 K provided global sensitivity enhancements of 23 and 45 for C-13 and Si-29, respectively, relative to standard CP-MAS measurements at room temperature. The effects of DNP were also ascertained by comparing with state-of-the-art two-dimensional heteronuclear H-1{C-13} and Si-29{H-1} correlation spectra, using, respectively, indirect detection or Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) refocusing to boost signal acquisition. This study highlights opportunities for further improvements through the development of high-field DNP, better polarizing agents, and improved capabilities for low-temperature MAS.

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