Electron-cyclotron-current-drive efficiency in DEMO plasmas
The achievable efficiency for external current drive through electron-cyclotron waves in a demonstration tokamak reactor is investigated. Two possible reactor designs, one for steady state and one for pulsed operation, are considered. Beam propagation, absorption and current drive are modelled employing the beam-tracing technique and including momentum conservation in electron-electron collisions. It is found that for midplane injection the achievable current drive efficiency is limited by second-harmonic absorption at levels consistent with previous studies. Higher efficiencies can be achieved by injecting the beams from the top of the machine, exploiting wave absorption by more energetic (less collisional) electrons. Current drive efficiencies competitive with those usually obtained by neutral beam current drive are reported. These optimum efficiencies are found for frequencies around 230 GHz and 290 GHz for the steady-state and the pulsed DEMO, supposed to operate at a magnetic field B = 5.84 T and B = 7.45 T, respectively.