Polycrystalline graphene: Atomic structure, energetics and transport properties
Recent experimental investigations show that large-area samples of graphene tend to be polycrystalline. Physical properties of such samples are strongly affected by the presence of intrinsic topological defects of polycrystalline materials-dislocations and grain boundaries. This article reviews recent progress in understanding dislocations and grain boundaries in graphene. First, a systematic approach towards constructing topological defects in graphene is introduced. Then, the review discusses the formation energies of these defects, stressing the dramatic stabilization of dislocations and small-angle grain boundaries in graphene due to the two-dimensional nature of this material. Finally, the electronic transport properties of polycrystalline graphene are considered, showing that topological defects may present novel opportunities towards engineering electronic devices based on graphene. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.