Two-Phase Control of On-Chip Two-Phase Cooling Systems of Servers
Thermal designers of data centers and server manufacturers are showing a great concern regarding the cooling of new generation data centers, which are more compact and dissipate more power than is currently possible to cool by conventional air conditioning systems. With very large data centers exceeding 100 000 servers, some consume more than 50 MW  of electrical energy to operate, energy which is directly converted to heat and then simply wasted as it is dissipated into the atmosphere. A potentially significantly better solution would be to make use of on-chip two-phase cooling , which, besides improving the cooling performance at the chip level, also adds the capability to reuse the waste heat in a convenient manner, since higher evaporating and condensing temperatures of the two-phase cooling system (from 60-95 C) are possible with such a new green cooling technology. In the present project, two such two-phase cooling cycles using micro-evaporation technology were experimentally evaluated with specific attention being paid to energy consumption, overall exergetic efficiency and controllability. The main difference between the two cooling cycles is the driver, where both a mini-compressor and a gear pump were considered. The former has the advantage due to its appeal of energy recovery since its exergy potential is higher and the waste heat is exported at a higher temperature for reuse.