Focused electron beam induced deposition of nickel
Focused electron beam induced depositions of nickel-containing materials obtained by using bis(methylcyclopentadienyl)nickel(II) Ni(C5H4CH3)(2) and tetrakis(trifluorophosphine)nickel(0) Ni(PF3)(4) as precursors, were compared in terms of chemical composition and electrical resistivity. Ni(PF3)(4) decomposed into higher Ni content materials than that obtained with Ni(C5H4CH3)(2) (typically 40 and 10 at. %, respectively). Attempts of increasing the Ni content by injecting controlled flows of molecular oxygen or hydrogen simultaneously to the precursor vapors resulted in all cases in the increase of incorporated oxygen only. The lowest electrical resistivities of 150 nm wide lines obtained from Ni(C5H4CH3)(2) and Ni(PF3)(4) were 1 and 1x10(-3) Omega cm, respectively. The electrical resistivity of the latter lines showed an e((-T)) dependence with temperature, typical of magnetic heterogeneous alloys and granular alloys containing insulating particles. Transmission electron microscopy investigations of a freestanding rod obtained from Ni(PF3)(4) showed a nanocrystalline structure of nickel grains surrounded by a partially amorphous cladding. (c) 2007 American Vacuum Society.