Biomimetic apatite coatings - Carbonate substitution and preferred growth orientation
Biomimetic apatite coatings were obtained by soaking chemically treated titanium in SBF with different HCO3- concentration. XRD, FTIR and Raman analyses were used to characterize phase composition and degree of carbonate substitution. The microstructure, elemental composition and preferred alignment of biomimetically precipitated crystallites were characterized by cross-sectional TEM analyses. According to XRD, the phase composition of precipitated coatings on chemically pre-treated titanium after exposure to SBF was identified as hydroxy carbonated apatite (HCA). A preferred c-axis orientation of the deposited crystals can be supposed due to the high relative peak intensities of the (0 0 2) diffraction line at 2 theta = 26 degrees compared to the 100% intensity peak of the (2 1 1) plane at 2 theta = 32 degrees. The crystallite size in direction of the c-axis of HCA decreased from 26 nm in SBF5 with a HCO3- concentration of 5 mmol/l to 19 nm in SBF27 with a HCO3- concentration of 27 mmol/l. Cross-sectional TEM analyses revealed that all distances correspond exactly to the hexagonal structure of hydroxyapatite. The HCO3- content in SBF also influences the composition of precipitated calcium phosphates. Biomimetic apatites were shown to have a general formula of Ca10-x-yMgy(HPO4)(x-z)(CO3)(z)(PO4)(6-x)(OH)(2-x-w)(CO3)(w/2). According to MR and Raman analyses, it can be supposed that as long as the HCO3- concentration in the testing solutions is below 20 mmol/l, only B-type HCA (0 < z < 1; w = 0) precipitates. At higher HCO3- concentration, it can be assumed that AB-type HCA (z = 1;0 < w < 1) is formed. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.