Spin and orbital magnetic response in metals: Susceptibility and NMR shifts
A DFT-based method is presented which allows the computation of all-electron NMR shifts of metallic compounds with periodic boundary conditions. NMR shifts in metals measure two competing physical phenomena. Electrons interact with the applied magnetic field (i) as magnetic dipoles (or spins), resulting in the Knight shift, and (ii) as moving electric charges, resulting in the chemical (or orbital) shift. The latter is treated through an extension to metals of the gauge-invariant projector augmented wave developed for insulators. The former is modeled as the hyperfine interaction between the electronic spin polarization and the nuclear dipoles. NMR shifts are obtained with respect to the computed shieldings of reference compounds, yielding fully ab initio quantities which are directly comparable to experiment. The method is validated by comparing the magnetic susceptibility of interacting and noninteracting homogeneous gas with known analytical results, and by comparing the computed NMR shifts of simple metals with experiment.