Bone tissue engineering aims at developing scaffolds, or porous structures, as supports for cell migration, proliferation and differentiation, in order to favor bone healing. L-poly lactic acid (PLA) foams, which were reinforced or not with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) particles, were obtained by melt-extrusion followed by supercritical gas foaming. After tailoring their morphology and mechanical properties to those of natural cancellous bone, their in vitro biocompatibility was tested. Promising results led to in vivo studies, using calvarial critical size defect in rats and bone filling of tibial and femoral defects in sheep