Perceptual learning is an implicit form of learning which induces long-lasting perceptual enhancements. Perceptual learning shows intriguing characteristics. For example, a minimal number of trials per session is needed for learning and the interleaved presentation of more than one stimulus type can hinder learning. Here, we show that these and other characteristics of perceptual learning are very similar to characteristics of long-term potentiation (LTP), the basic mechanism of memory formation. We outline these characteristics and discuss results of electrophysiological experiments which indirectly link LTP and perceptual learning. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.