Low-temperature indium hermetic sealing of alkali vapor-cells for chip-scale atomic clocks
We present a low-temperature indium hermetic bonding technique on wafer level without using flux, active atmosphere or other pretreatment of the indium. Its simplicity and low temperatures allow encapsulation of sensitive MEMS devices. Bonding stronger than 18 MPa was accomplished with temperatures never exceeding 140 degrees C. Leak rate measurements revealed leak rate below 2.5 x 10(-12) atm cc/s. This bonding technique is then applied to fabricate rubidium vapor-cells for chip-scale atomic clocks (CSAC). Saturated absorption spectroscopy performed two and five months after fabrication confirms less than 1 mbar of gas contamination, and the retrieved clock signal demonstrates the suitability of the cell for clock applications.