Composition, stability, and measurement of reduced uranium phases for groundwater bioremediation at Old Rifle, CO
Reductive biostimulation is currently being explored as a possible remediation strategy for U-contaminated groundwater, and is being investigated at a field site in Rifle, CO, USA. The long-term stability of the resulting U(IV) phases is a key component of the overall performance of the remediation approach and depends upon a variety of factors, including rate and mechanism of reduction, mineral associations in the subsurface, and propensity for oxidation. To address these factors, several approaches were used to evaluate the redox sensitivity of U: (1) measurement of the rate of oxidative dissolution of biogenic uraninite (UO2(s)) deployed in groundwater at Rifle, (2) characterization of a zone of natural bioreduction exhibiting relevant reduced mineral phases, and (3) laboratory studies of the oxidative capacity of Fe(III) and reductive capacity of Fe(II) with regard to U(IV) and U(VI), respectively. Published by Elsevier Ltd.