Journal article

Video-rate fluorescence lifetime imaging camera with CMOS single-photon avalanche diode arrays and high-speed imaging algorithm

A high-speed and hardware-only algorithm using a center of mass method has been proposed for singledetector fluorescence lifetime sensing applications. This algorithm is now implemented on a field programmable gate array to provide fast lifetime estimates from a 32 × 32 low dark count 0.13 μm complementary metaloxide- semiconductor single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) plus time-to-digital converter array. A simple look-up table is included to enhance the lifetime resolvability range and photon economics, making it comparable to the commonly used least-square method and maximum-likelihood estimation based software. To demonstrate its performance, a widefield microscope was adapted to accommodate the SPAD array and image different test samples. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy on fluorescent beads in Rhodamine 6G at a frame rate of 50 fps is also shown.

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