Infoscience

Thesis

Multivariate Boosting with Look-Up Tables for Face Processing

This thesis proposes a novel unified boosting framework. We apply this framework to the several face processing tasks, face detection, facial feature localisation, and pose classification, and use the same boosting algorithm and the same pool of features (local binary features). This is in contrast with the standard approaches that make use of a variety of features and models, for example AdaBoost, cascades of boosted classifiers and Active Appearance Models. The unified boosting framework covers multivariate classification and regression problems and it is achieved by interpreting boosting as optimization in the functional space of the weak learners. Thus a wide range of smooth loss functions can be optimized with the same algorithm. There are two general optimization strategies we propose that extend recent works on TaylorBoost and Variational AdaBoost. The first proposition is an empirical expectation formulation that minimizes the average loss and the second is a variational formulation that includes an additional penalty for large variations between predictions. These two boosting formulations are used to train real-time models using local binary features. This is achieved using look-up-tables as weak learners and multi-block Local Binary Patterns as features. The resulting boosting algorithms are simple, efficient and easily scalable with the available resources. Furthermore, we introduce a novel coarse-to-fine feature selection method to handle high resolution models and a bootstrapping algorithm to sample representative training data from very large pools of data. The proposed approach is evaluated for several face processing tasks. These tasks include frontal face detection (binary classification), facial feature localization (multivariate regression) and pose estimation (multivariate classification). Several studies are performed to assess different optimization algorithms, bootstrapping parametrizations and feature sharing methods (for the multivariate case). The results show good performance for all of these tasks. In addition to this, two other contributions are presented. First, we propose a context-based model for removing the false alarms generated by a given generic face detector. Second, we propose a new face detector that predicts the Jaccard distance between the current location and the ground truth. This allows us to formulate the face detection problem as a regression task.

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