The last ten years of research in the field of innate immunity have been incredibly fertile: the transmembrane Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were discovered as guardians protecting the host against microbial attacks and the emerging pathways characterized in detail. More recently, cytoplasmic sensors were identified, which are capable of detecting not only microbial, but also self molecules. Importantly, while such receptors trigger crucial host responses to microbial insult, over-activity of some of them has been linked to autoinflammatory disorders, hence demonstrating the importance of tightly regulating their actions over time and space. Here, we provide an overview of recent findings covering this area of innate and inflammatory responses that originate from the cytoplasm.