Space missions are often equipped with several high definition sensors that can autonomously collect a potentially enormous amount of data. The bottleneck in retrieving these often precious datasets is the onboard data storing capability and the communication bandwidth, which limit the amount of data that can be sent back to Earth. In this paper, we propose a method based on the analysis of brain electrical activity to identify the scientific interest of experts towards a given image in a large set of images. Such a method can be used to efficiently create an abundant training set (images and whether they are scientifically interesting) with a considerably faster image presentation rate that can go beyond expert consciousness, with less interrogation time for experts and relatively high performance.