Critical particle concentration in electrophoretic deposition
The role of particle concentration in electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was investigated with two different suspension systems. The first system consisted of positively charged TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in isopropanol with 1 vol% water. The second system consisted of negatively charged polystyrene (PS) microbeads dispersed in isopropanol. Constant voltage EPD was performed using suspensions with variable particle concentration (0.013-0.43 vol% TiO2 and 0.06-11.4 vol% PS). Threshold concentration values were identified for both systems after EPD at 100 V(250 V cm(-1)) for 1 min. Below these values the deposited mass deviated from the trend dictated by Hamaker's equation. Higher applied voltages and longer deposition times were tested and the results suggested that the threshold concentration did not depend on those parameters. A phenomenological model of particle deposition was proposed, which accounts for the local electrochemical conditions close to the substrate in relation to particle size. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.