The integrin family of cell adhesion receptors is emerging as a promising target of anticancer therapy. AlphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta5 integrins are overexpressed on both glioma cells and tumor vasculature. Cilengitide, the most advanced specific integrin inhibitor in oncology, has shown antitumor activity against glioma in early clinical trials. Durable remissions have been observed in phase I and phase II trials for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) with both lower and higher doses of cilengitide. Pilot trials in newly diagnosed glioblastoma in conjunction with standard chemoradiotherapy have been encouraging. Preclinical data suggest synergy with concomitant chemo- and radiation therapy. A pivotal phase III study (CENTRIC) in newly diagnosed GBM patients is currently recruiting. This paper summarizes the current understanding of the role of integrins and their inhibition in gliomagenesis. The background and design of ongoing trials are outlined.