From Single Particle to Superfluid Excitations in a Dissipative Polariton Gas
Using an angle-resolved heterodyne four-wave-mixing technique, we probe the low momentum excitation spectrum of a coherent polariton gas. The experimental results are well captured by the Bogoliubov transformation which describes the transition from single particle excitations of a normal fluid to soundlike excitations of a superfluid. In a dense coherent polariton gas, we find all the characteristics of a Bogoliubov transformation, i.e., the positive and negative energy branch with respect to the polariton gas energy at rest, soundlike shapes for the excitations dispersion, intensity, and linewidth ratio between the two branches in agreement with the theory. The influence of the nonequilibrium character of the polariton gas is shown by a careful analysis of its dispersion.