TGR5 Activation Inhibits Atherosclerosis by Reducing Macrophage Inflammation and Lipid Loading
The G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 has been identified as an important component of the bile acid signaling network, and its activation has been linked to enhanced energy expenditure and improved glycemic control. Here, we demonstrate that activation of TGR5 in macrophages by 6 alpha-ethyl-23(S)-methylcholic acid (6-EMCA, INT-777), a semisynthetic BA, inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production, an effect mediated by TGR5-induced cAMP signaling and subsequent NF-kappa B inhibition. TGR5 activation attenuated atherosclerosis in Ld/r(-/-)Tgr5(+/+) mice but not in Ld/r(-/-)Tgr5(-/-) double-knockout mice. The inhibition of lesion formation was associated with decreased intraplaque inflammation and less plaque macrophage content. Furthermore, Ld/r(-/-)animals transplanted with Tgr5(-/-) bone marrow did not show an inhibition of atherosclerosis by INT-777, further establishing an important role of leukocytes in INT-777-mediated inhibition of vascular lesion formation. Taken together, these data attribute a significant immune modulating function to TGR5 activation in the prevention of atherosclerosis, an important facet of the metabolic syndrome.
Record created on 2011-12-07, modified on 2016-08-09