The Springer Handbook of Geographic Information is organized in thre parts, Basics, Geographic Information and Applications. Some parts of the basics belong to the larger field of computer science. However, the reader gets a comprehensive view on geographic information because the topics selected from computer science have a close relation to geographic information. This chapter belongs to Part B of the book that addresses all geographic information topics that primarily are more specific to space and time. Staring with on the description of geographic information systems (GIS), the following chapters cover geodetic foundations, the capture of spatial and temporal data and their visualization (cartography) as well as web mapping technologies.