Origins and consequences of transcriptional discontinuity
In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, transcription has been described as being temporally discontinuous, most genes being active mainly during short activity windows interspersed by silent periods. In mammalian cells, recent studies performed at the single cell level have revealed that transcriptional kinetics are highly gene-specific and constrained by the presence of refractory periods of inactivity before a gene can be turned on again. While the underlying mechanisms generating gene-specific kinetic characteristics remain unclear, various biological consequences of transcriptional discontinuity have been unravelled during the past few years. Here we review recent advances on understanding transcriptional kinetics of individual genes at the single cell level and discuss its possible origins and consequences.