To cope with a variety of clinical applications, research in medical image processing has led to a large spectrum of segmentation techniques that extract anatomical structures from volumetric data acquired with 3D imaging modalities. Despite continuing advances in mathematical models for automatic segmentation, many medical practitioners still rely on 2D manual delineation, due to the lack of intuitive semi-automatic tools in 3D. In this thesis, we propose a methodology and associated numerical schemes enabling the development of 3D image segmentation tools that are reliable, fast and interactive. These properties are key factors for clinical acceptance. Our approach derives from the framework of variational methods: segmentation is obtained by solving an optimization problem that translates the expected properties of target objects in mathematical terms. Such variational methods involve three essential components that constitute our main research axes: an objective criterion, a shape representation and an optional set of constraints. As objective criterion, we propose a unified formulation that extends existing homogeneity measures in order to model the spatial variations of statistical properties that are frequently encountered in medical images, without compromising efficiency. Within this formulation, we explore several shape representations based on implicit surfaces with the objective to cover a broad range of typical anatomical structures. Firstly, to model tubular shapes in vascular imaging, we introduce convolution surfaces in the variational context of image segmentation. Secondly, compact shapes such as lesions are described with a new representation that generalizes Radial Basis Functions with non-Euclidean distances, which enables the design of basis functions that naturally align with salient image features. Finally, we estimate geometric non-rigid deformations of prior templates to recover structures that have a predictable shape such as whole organs. Interactivity is ensured by restricting admissible solutions with additional constraints. Translating user input into constraints on the sign of the implicit representation at prescribed points in the image leads us to consider inequality-constrained optimization.