Infoscience

Thesis

Boiling on a Tube Bundle: Heat Transfer, Pressure Drop and Flow Patterns

The complexity of two-phase flow boiling on a tube bundle presents many challenges to the understanding of the physical phenomena taking place. It is important to quantify these numerous heat flow mechanisms in order to better describe the performance of tube bundles as a function of the operational conditions. In the present study, the bundle boiling facility at the Laboratory of Heat and Mass Transfer (LTCM) was modified to obtain high-speed videos to characterise the two-phase regimes and some bubble dynamics of the boiling process. It was then used to measure heat transfer on single tubes and in bundle boiling conditions. Pressure drop measurements were also made during adiabatic and diabatic bundle conditions. New enhanced boiling tubes from Wolverine Tube Inc. (Turbo-B5) and the Wieland-Werke AG (Gewa-B5) were investigated using R134a and R236fa as test fluids. The tests were carried out at saturation temperatures Tsat of 5°C and 15°C, mass flow rates from 4 to 35 kg/m2s and heat fluxes from 15 to 70 kW/m2, typical of actual operating conditions. The flow pattern investigation was conducted using visual observations from a borescope inserted in the middle of the bundle. Measurements of the light attenuation of a laser beam through the intertube two-phase flow and local pressure fluctuations with piezo-electric pressure transducers were also taken to further help in characterising the complex flow. Pressure drop measurements and data reduction procedures were revised and used to develop new, improved frictional pressure drop prediction methods for adiabatic and diabatic two-phase conditions. The physical phenomena governing the enhanced tube evaporation process and their effects on the performance of tube bundles were investigated and insight gained. A new method based on a theoretical analysis of thin film evaporation was used to propose a new correlating parameter. A large new database of local heat transfer coefficients were obtained and then utilised to generate improved prediction methods for pool boiling and bundle boiling, including a method for predicting the onset of dryout.

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