A review. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are an emerging class of antiproliferative agents that have the potential to combat cancer on an epigenetic level. The recently reported marine natural product largazole was recently isolated in trace amts. from cyanobacteria and displays a very potent and selective antiproliferative activity towards a no. of cell lines. Several lines of evidence suggested it might act as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. These compelling properties have generated considerable interest in the synthetic community which resulted in several total syntheses of largazole. The present review offered a brief overview of the synthetic routes and some early structure-activity relationships.