Described herein are microelectrode array devices, and methods of fabrication and use of the same, to provide highly localized and efficient electrical stimulation of a neurological target. The device includes multiple microelectrode elements arranged along an supportive backing layer. The microelectrode elements are dimensioned and shaped so as to target individual neurons, groups of neurons, and neural tissue as may be located in an animal nervous system, such as along a region of a cortex of a human brain. Beneficially, the neurological probe can be used to facilitate location of the neurological target and remain implanted for long-term monitoring and/or stimulation.