Bromate Formation During Ozonation Of Bromide-Containing Waters - Interaction Of Ozone And Hydroxyl Radical Reactions
Kinetic simulations have been tested by laboratory experiments to evaluate the major factors controlling bromate formation during ozonation of waters containing bromide. In the presence of an organic scavenger for OH radicals, bromate formation can be accurately predicted by the molecular ozone mechanism using published reaction rate data, even for waters containing ammonium In the absence of scavengers, OH radical reactions contribute significantly to bromate formation. Carbonate radicals, produced by the oxidation of bicarbonate with OH radicals, oxidize the intermediate hypobromite to bromite, which is further oxidized by ozone to bromate. During drinking water ozonation, molecular ozone controls both the initial oxidation of bromide and the final oxidation of bromite. OH radical reactions contribute to the oxidation of the intermediate oxybromine species. Bromate formation in advanced oxidation processes can be explained by a synergism of ozone and OH radicals.