Ozonation of bromide-containing drinking waters: a delicate balance between disinfection and bromate formation
The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in raw waters and bromate formation during ozonation of bromide-containing waters leads to a difficult optimisation of ozonation processes. On the one hand inactivation of Cryptosporidium requires high ozone exposures, on the other hand under these conditions bromate formation is favored. In order to overcome this problem we need information about (i) the oxidant concentrations (ozone and OH radicals) during an ozonation process, (ii) kinetics of the inactivation of Cryptosporidium, (iii) kinetics and mechanism of bromate formation, and (iv) the reactor hydraulics. The strong temperature dependence of the inactivation of Cryptosporidium which results in a higher ozone exposure (time-integrated action of ozone) at low temperatures makes it more difficult to fulfil disinfection and bromate standards at low temperatures. Cinder these conditions control options for bromate formation can be applied. Depression of pH and addition of ammonia have been selected to be the best options. For a given ozone exposure both measures lead to a reduction of bromate formation in the order of 50%.
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Keywords: drinking water ; ozone ; OH radicals ; oxidation ; disinfection ; Cryptosporidium inactivation ; bromate formation kinetics ; Hydrogen-Peroxide ; Hypobromous Acid ; Ozone ; Kinetics ; Decomposition
Record created on 2011-07-01, modified on 2016-08-09