Landscape genomics is an emerging research field that bridges genetics and genomics to geo-environmental resources analysis. It aims to study genome/environment interaction to discover the genetic basis of adaptation by processing of many simultaneous DNA-environment association models, exploiting GIS (Geographical Information Systems) science and statistical methods. In this paper, we review the literature related to the recent history of this discipline, describing its application to livestock genetics, discussing its potential contribution to Farm Animal Genetic Resources (FAnGR) conservation and management, explaining its role in the analysis of the local adaptation of autochtonous breeds and showing how the upcoming next-next generation of DNA sequencing methods, in parallel with the availability of an increasing number of high quality environmental data sets, will allow a real take-off of this novel approach.