Post-translational modification of genetically encoded polypeptide libraries
The genetic encoding of polypeptides with biological display systems enables the facile generation and screening of very large combinatorial libraries of molecules. By post-translationally modifying the encoded polypeptides, chemically and structurally more diverse molecules beyond linear amino acid polymers can be generated. The first post-translational modification applied to encoded polypeptides, the oxidation of cysteine residues to form disulfide bridges, is a natural one and was used to cyclise short peptides soon after the invention of phage display. Recently a range of non-natural chemical strategies for the post-translational modification of encoded polypeptide repertoires were applied to generate optical biosensors, semisynthetic polypeptides, peptide-drug conjugates, redox-insensitive monocyclic peptides or multicyclic peptides, and these strategies are reviewed in this article.