The conventional treatment for the cure of esophageal cancer is surgical resection. Esophageal cancer, when detected at an early stage, has a very good probability of being eradicated by less aggressive procedures, and photodynamic therapy has proven to be a safe and effective treatment modality in some carefully selected patients. The indications, outcomes, and future considerations regarding the use of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of superficial squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus are discussed in this article.