Fluorescence of the bladder washout fluid following cystoscopy: a preliminary study
During fluorescence cystoscopy, it is observed that the acquired images are sometimes blurred by a greenish background originating from the bladder washout fluid. Several fluorophores are involved in this overall liquid fluorescence, and their exact origin and relative contributions remain unknown. In this study, the bladder washout fluid is sampled at different times during fluorescence cystoscopy examinations. In total, 32 samples from 12 patients are analyzed with a spectrofluorimeter (excitation range: 350-445 nm, emission range 380-700 nm). This study shows clearly that the position of the fluorescence peaks (excitation/emission wavelengths: 450/525 nm, 405/625 nm) and shoulder (440/525 nm) is reproducible between different patients. It also suggests that an excitation at wavelengths higher than 400 nm helps to suppress this solution background fluorescence. Additionally, the pH of the solution seems to influence the position of the fluorescence peaks, and this suggests that changing the pH of the examination liquid could help in avoiding the greenish background.