Physical basis of pressure transfer from periphery to aorta: a model-based study
We propose a new method to derive aortic pressure from peripheral pressure and velocity by using a time domain approach. Peripheral pressure is separated into its forward and backward components, and these components are then shifted with a delay time, which is the ratio of wave speed and distance, and added again to reconstruct aortic pressure. We tested the method on a distributed model of the human systemic arterial tree. From carotid and brachial artery pressure and velocity, aortic systolic and diastolic pressure could be predicted within 0.3 and 0.1 mmHg and 0.4 and 1.0 mmHg, respectively. The central aortic pressure wave shape was also predicted accurately from carotid and brachial pressure and velocity (root mean square error: 1.07 and 1.56 mmHg, respectively). The pressure transfer function depends on the reflection coefficient at the site of peripheral measurement and the delay time. A 50% decrease in arterial compliance had a considerable effect on reconstructed pressure when the control transfer function was used. A 70% decrease in arm resistance did not affect the reconstructed pressure. The transfer function thus depends on wave speed but has little dependence on vasoactive state. We conclude that central aortic pressure and the transfer function can be derived from peripheral pressure and velocity.