Plaque-prone hemodynamics impair endothelial function in pig carotid arteries
Hemodynamic forces play an active role in vascular pathologies, particularly in relation to the localization of atherosclerotic lesions. It has been established that low shear stress combined with cyclic reversal of flow direction (oscillatory shear stress) affects the endothelial cells and may lead to an initiation of plaque development. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of hemodynamic conditions in arterial segments perfused in vitro in the absence of other stimuli. Left common porcine carotid segments were mounted into an ex vivo arterial support system and perfused for 3 days under unidirectional high and low shear stress (6 +/- 3 and 0.3 +/- 0.1 dyn/cm(2)) and oscillatory shear stress (0.3 +/- 3 dyn/cm(2)). Bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation was drastically decreased in arteries exposed to oscillatory shear stress compared with unidirectional shear stress. Impaired nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation was correlated to changes in both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression and activation in response to bradykinin treatment. This study determined the flow-mediated effects on native tissue perfused with physiologically relevant flows and supports the hypothesis that oscillatory shear stress is a determinant factor in early stages of atherosclerosis. Indeed, oscillatory shear stress induces an endothelial dysfunction, whereas unidirectional shear stress preserves the function of endothelial cells. Endothelial dysfunction is directly mediated by a downregulation of eNOS gene expression and activation; consequently, a decrease of nitric oxide production and/or bioavailability occurs.