Microwave frequency modulation in continuous-wave far-infrared ESR utilizing a quasi-optical reflection bridge
We report the development of the frequency-modulation (FM) method for measuring electron spin resonance (ESR) absorption in the 210- to 420 GHz frequency range. We demonstrate that using a high-frequency ESR spectrometer without resonating microwave components enables us to overcome technical difficulties associated with the FM method due to nonlinear microwave-elements, without sacrificing spectrometer performance. FM was achieved by modulating the reference oscillator of a 13 GHz Phase-Locked Dielectric Resonator Oscillator, and amplifying and frequency-multi plying the resulting millimeter-wave radiation up to 210, 315 and 420 GHz. ESR spectra were obtained in reflection mode by a lock-in detection at the fundamental modulation frequency, and also at the second and third harmonic. Sensitivity of the setup was verified by conduction electron spin resonance measurement in KC60. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.