Graphene exhibits unconventional two-dimensional electronic properties resulting from the symmetry of its quasiparticles, which leads to the concepts of pseudospin and electronic chirality. Here, we report that scanning tunneling microscopy can be used to probe these unique symmetry properties at the nanometer scale. They are reflected in the quantum interference pattern resulting from elastic scattering off impurities, and they can be directly read from its fast Fourier transform. Our data, complemented by theoretical calculations, demonstrate that the pseudospin and the electronic chirality in epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) correspond to the ones predicted for ideal graphene.