There has been a concerted effort over the last decade to improve our understanding of the complex biology of ovarian cancer. A linear growth in published proteogenomic studies has addressed a variety of questions regarding its molecular pathogenesis. A number of genes have been identified by transcriptomic approaches, some of which are being investigated as putative tumor markers (HE4, OPN, Ep-CAM and Mesothelin), whilst others are potential targets for molecular therapeutic approaches (VEGF, 104, EGFR, MUC1, CLDN4 and SLPI). Proteogenomics has the potential to further change our current characterization and treatment of ovarian cancer. Additional advances will depend on integrated study designs, interdisciplinary collaborations, use of robust high-throughput platforms, as well as uniform guidelines for bioinformatic analyses.