Apparent transverse relaxation rates in systems with coupled carbon-13 spins
In systems with homonuclear scalar couplings, the envelopes of spin echoes obtained with simple refocusing pulses or trains of such pulses are normally modulated so that it is difficult to extract transverse relaxation rates. It has been shown recently that echo modulations can be quenched by cumulative pulse errors that arise after applying a large number of refocusing pulses with moderate rf amplitudes. The resulting unmodulated decays allow one to extract apparent transverse relaxation rates. Early work on systems comprising only two nitrogen-15 nuclei or two carbon-13 spins has recently been extended to systems with coupled protons. This work focuses on systems with three coupled carbon-13 spins, which in turn are coupled to several neighbouring protons. Unmodulated echo trains can be obtained by optimizing the pulse interval, the carrier frequency and the rf amplitude of the refocusing pulses.