Action Filename Description Size Access License Resource Version
Show more files...


We report on a three and a half year old child with episodic sinus bradycardia during habitual seizures and prolonged interictal discharges due to focal cortical dysplasia in the anterior 2/3 of the insula and the inferior frontal cortex. Seizure-induced bradycardia is rarely reported in children. Bradycardia is suspected to be related to sudden death, a rare complication of a chronic seizure disorder. Several well-documented cases in adult patients reveal a high incidence of temporal epilepsy, but MRI and PET studies in healthy subjects suggest a major role of the insular cortex, especially the right, in cardiac regulation. Our finding underlines the predominance of the right insula in cardiac control, which already seems to be present in children.