Recent substantial progress in the domain of indoor positioning systems and a growing number of indoor location-based applications are creating the need for systematic, efficient, and precise experimental methods able to assess the localization and perhaps also navigation performance of a given device. With hundreds of Khepera III robots in academic use today, this platform has an important potential for single- and multi-robot localization and navigation research. In this work, we develop a necessary set of models for mobile robot navigation with the Khepera III platform, and quantify the robot’s localization performance based on extensive experimental studies. Finally, we validate our experimental approach to localization research by considering the evaluation of an ultra-wideband (UWB) positioning system. We successfully show how the robotic platform can provide precise performance analyses, ultimately proposing a powerful approach towards advancements in indoor positioning technology.